Using the topic you have developed in PSY-530 (if you have not taken PSY-530, please check with your instructor about a topic), write a Research Proposal (2,000-2,500 words) on a topic relevant to the course. To complete the Research Proposal, do the following:
Review the attached document “Research Proposal Guidelines” as well as Topic 7 lecture section on The Results and Discussion Sections in the Research Proposal for a brief overview pertaining to “how to” complete the assignment.
- Introductory section: Include hypothesis and a review of the literature.
- Method section: Include subsections on Participants, Apparatus/Materials/Instruments, Procedure, and Design.
- Results section: Include statistic, critical values, degrees of freedom, and alpha level.
- Discussion section: Include interpretation of results, ethical concerns, limitations of study, and suggestions for future research.
- Figures and Tables section: Include a minimum of two (either two figures, two tables, or a figure and a table).
Include at least 8-10 scholarly references.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.
This benchmark assignment assesses the following programmatic competencies:
MS Psychology, Forensic Psychology; General Psychology; GeroPsychology; Health Psychology; Human Factors Psychology; Industrial and Organizational Psychology; Life Coaching
3.3: Design an innovative research study
4.3: Plan and manage the necessary process for the completion of a research project.
Mary T. Akinmola
College of Humanities & Social Sciences, Grand Canyon University
Dr. Shaui Schwartz
November 03, 2021
Running head: ASSIGNMENT TITLE HERE
Benchmark Research Proposal
At times, the American dream is often unattainable due to factors that some individuals have no direct control over. It’s no surprise or new news that America has a race problem, but race also ties into matters regarding to health issues. With the untrained eye, racial injustices are often are categorized as not being able to land a job, getting followed around in the store or being unwelcome in establishments, apartments, or neighborhoods. The list goes on and on. Interestingly enough, a lot of these racial injustices do have some effects on health. Although the things that cause the most significant issues are the various day-to-day incidents and interactions.
Chances a considerable amount of people have been a victim of race or racism at least once in their lives or have had to deal with a string of minor forms of racism. For instance, an individual is racially profiled, a stranger calls security on you because they think you don’t your building being they believe you couldn’t afford to live there. An individual getting slurs directed towards them. Another example is being pulled over by multiple police cars for a simple traffic violation or dead headlight. Often times people say that they noticed people would walk around them, tuck their purse or belongs and try to walk away at an accelerated rate. Exposure to these forms of microaggressions and racially motivated incidents happens regularly, and they can lead up to traumatic effects on those on the receiving hand (Martin, 2017).
Recently, In addition, it was reported Pregnant women who experience racial injustice at a higher rate were more likely for their newborn babies to have a lower birth weight percentiles (Martin, 2017). A study that looked into racism and mental health with a cross-Sectional and longitudinal lens showed that there was no significant relationship among racial discrimination in relation to physical or mental health, as stated from the results of the cross-sectional portion of the study. Nonetheless, in the longitudinal part of the study, the results convayed that there was a positive relationship amongst each of the variables; therefore, that study concluded that constant exposure to negative and adverse experiences of racism could negatively affect health (Kwate and Goodman, 2015).
A meta-analysis of the studies that wanted to figure out the effects in which racism had on health concluded and made a list of the common health issues associated with being a victim of racism. In that list, it was stated that depression had the highest number reported at a (37.2%), second on the list was self-esteem reported (24.3%). In third place, psychological stress was reported (21.3%), then fourth on the list was distress at (18.3%), fifth on the list anxiety was reported at (14.4%). Posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic stress disorder was sixth on the list and had a (4.8%) report rate . Lastly, planning/attempting suicide was at (3.6%) . In the studies, many other physical issues and psychological effects were also reported (Priest et al., 2014).
Many of the studies only used African-American participants for their research. Not many of the studies used other ethnic, racially diverse groups or multi-racial participants for their samples. The best way for more accurate and general results would have been to do a large and true random sample of the nation’s population, which would include a diverse pool of racial backgrounds since everyone has experienced some form or another of racism at least once. In addition, participants should be located at random geographic locations across the United States, not just from one state. For the study, I propose that the null hypothesis is that no significant relationship between racism and health will be found.
In this study a total of Three hundred and eighty-five participants were used. The racial demographics will not be limited to only a set race, but all races willing and able to participate. For the study, the participants are to be eighteen years old or older and have been victims of racism a minimum of at least five separate counts. The recruitment will be from five different colleges in different regions and locations across the United States so that the sample size would be diverse.
Apparatus and Materials/Instruments
A tablet will be given and distributed to the participants, an informed consent form will be handed out and filled out before the start of the study, at the end of the study, participants will be given a debriefing form, a computer will be used, and SPSS program software will be used for this study. A quiet and secure space will be utilized in order for participants to complete the study, in it the placement of a table, chairs, chargers and writing utensils will be set. The questionnaire will be completed digitally with the tablets to prevent paper waste or misplaced paper forms (Jong, 2016). Consent and permission will be asked from every study participant during each data collection stage.
After the approval for this study is obtained and granted. A secure and private location will be needed and found in order for the participants to complete the study. Next, five colleges will be selected from different backgrounds and regional geolocations to recruit a diverse pool of participants and obtain consent from the school’s hreb regarding the study. If a school declines another will be asked until five colleges are selected. Four hundred printed out copies of the informed consent form, the debriefing form, and the survey in case of technical difficulties. Two days of recruitment will be conducted using a sign-up booth in the college’s cafeteria.From each college, seventy-seven students would be recruited. Each participant will be given and confirmed they received the informed consent form. All questions, if raised, will be answered and explained, In order to achieve an accurate and authentic response, deception would be used in this study. Participants should not be told the true purpose of the survey to avoid biased responses. The study will begin once all forms are signed. Participants would be timed and granted an hour to finish and submit their questionnaires. Next, individuals would be given immediately after the questionnaire a debriefing form, explaining the why and how they were deceived during the research study. The concluded data will be analyzed and presented in a research report (Fink, 2012).
A nonexperimental design will be used to conduct this study. Correlational research will be used to measure both variables, racism, and health, without trying to control them or any of the other extraneous variables. An analysis will be done of their relationship. This will be achieved by conducting a descriptive research study (Research Methods in Psychology, 2010).
For this research study, an ANOVA test is the best option for this experiment, since the x- value will be categorized into multiple groups, which enables the results to be analyzed for each race separately (SPSS Tutorials, 2018). In total three hundred and eighty-five participants in presented in this proposal, thus the degree of freedom will be exactly three hundred and eighty-four. The confidence level is ninety-five percent the alpha value is .05, when then would mean the z-score is .975, leading the critical value to be 1.96.
Once the data was analyzed and the significant results were configured, the null hypothesis would be rejected since no significant relationship was found amongh racism and health according to the data. On the contrary, if the data that was shown had nonsignificant results, the null hypothesis did not need to be rejected. However, in the event that nonsignificant results were obtained, a possible change in variables would be necessary and further research.
All the ethical guidelines according to the APA will be followed during the entirety of the duration of this study. Approval will be granted first from the institution before any and all studies begin. Informed consent forms would be distributed to each participant, thoroughly explained, and then signed by all participants. As stated in the APA guidelines, deception can be permitted during a study as long as the value justifies it provides the study. Some deception is necessary during a study to achieve natural and legitimate responses. All participants will be debriefed and given debriefing forms once the study is complete. Debriefing forms are going to contain the full explanation of the deception that was used during the research study and disclose the real intentions of the study (Ethical Principles of Psychologists, 2017).
Future researchers interested in researching this topic should try to find out which health complications exist by factors of genetics and find out which are caused by the effect of being a victim of racism. Another limitation study is that one racial group could still cluster the sample. This makes it difficult to determine if one race experiences more health problems and issues from racism than the other groups. Race can be a confounding variable since certain groups might have higher chance from suffering from certain health conditions. Additionally, race is also a variable that plays a significant role in others racist behaviors towards others. Researchers that are planning on studying this topic should also think about conducting a series of additional studies that would include having an equal amount of participants for the different racial groups. In addition, future studies should also think about factoring exactly which health conditions have a greater likelihood of appearing in a specific racial groups or which health conditions hardly ever naturally occur. Lastly, it would be beneficial to try and find out if the participants are willining to disclose if they have any type or form of genetic predisposition to certain health conditions.
Thank you for taking part of this study. You have successfully completed a study by Mary Akinmola. This debriefing form aims to reveal the study’s proper background and explain why it was conducted. All questions, remarks, and feedback is welcome.
Unfortunately, In order to record an authentic reaction, all the participants were deceived by the researcher at the beginning of this study. You were told that this was a study that would examine bullying. However, the true reason for this study was to gain to a more precise understanding
to the relationship between racism and damaging psychological trauma.
If you decide to withdraw your participation in this study due to this news, rest assured all the collected data to your involvement will be destroyed without penalty.A follow-up session will be organized at a later date in the near future for this study. We ask that the participants not talk about your response or discuss this study after completion.
This form for your records is for your personal record and is yours to keep.
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. (2017). http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/
Fink, A. (2012). How to conduct surveys: A step-by-step guide: A step-by-step guide. Sage Publications.
Jong, J. (2016). Data Collections: Face-to-Face Surveys.Retrieved from http://ccsg.isr.umich.edu/index.php/chapters/data-collection-chapter/face-to-face-surveys
Kwate, N. O. A, PhD, & Goodman, M. S, PhD. (2015). Cross-Sectional andLongitudinal Effects of Racism on Mental Health Among Residents of Black Neighborhoods in New York City. Vol 105 (No. 4). https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http:// search.ebscohos t.com /login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2015-15896-035&site=eds-live&scope=site
Martin, M. (2017). Racism is literally bad for your health. https://www.npr.org/2017/10/28/560444290/racism-is-literally-bad-for-your-health
Priest, N., Perry, R., Ferdinand, A., Paradies, Y., & Kelaher, M. (2014). Experiences of Racism, Racial/Ethnic Attitudes, Motivated Fairness, and Mental Health Outcomes Among Primary and Secondary School Students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Vol 43(10), doi:10.1007/s10964-014-0140-9. https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?PROPOSALurl=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2014-23875-001&site= eds-live&scope=site
Research Methods in Psychology. (2010). Overview of nonexperimental research. http://open.lib.umn.edu/psychologyresearchmethods/chapter/7-1-overview-of-nonexpe rimental-research/
SPSS Tutorials: One-Way ANOVA. (2018). One-way ANOVA. https://libguides.library.kent.edu/SPSS/OneWayANOVA